About the Teega
The Nasa Para Wing (NPW) kites are extremely popular and it’s not hard to
First of all, they are cheap to buy and offer a cost-effective way into many
power kite sports.
Second, you can easily build one yourself and there are many plans available
on the internet.
Third, they pack down small and weigh very little so it’s easy to always have
one with you.
Fourth, the time required for setting up to fly is minimal – a minute or two
Fifth, they are easy to launch, land and relaunch without assistance,
regardless of size.
Sixth, they have a massive pull relative to their size.
Seventh, they are virtually unbreakable (but please remember that you are
Eighth, because of their excellent low wind properties, they have a wide wind
Advanced kiters, however, often complain about the performance of NPW’s
compared to that of the latest foil designs. And it’s true that NPW’s have
drawbacks. The main ones are these:
- The pull generated is very strong in the power zone (straight downwind) but
small at zenith and to the sides.
- The pull is uneven and hard to control, making the flyer constantly work
hard to get the power he or she needs.
- The flying window is smaller than it is with foils, LEI’s and hybrids.
- They can’t be water relaunched.
While I agree with the above, I believe the first two points can be improved
with a good NPW design. The flying window is a bit smaller, partly because
the NPW’s need a certain angle of attack to stay inflated properly but also
because they weigh so little that there is no momentum in the kite that helps
to expand its flying window when in flight. But the great advantage of the
ultra low weight is that they fly in virtually no wind. So even if you prefer
flying advanced foils/LEI’s/hybrids, this aspect should make you want at
least one (preferably big) in your quiver of kites: It will fly when all
other power kites refuse to leave the ground!
After more than a year of tuning various NPW9b profiles – I have over 40 well
performing profiles from 2003 with explicit comments on my computer – I
started summarizing what I had learned so far. Some parameters of the design
are fairly fixed while others can be varied and the possible combinations are
seemingly endless. The more I studied the data, however, the more I felt I
had enough information to make a qualified guess on how to make a better NPW.
The result was named the Teega, a kite that has some unique features:
• A wider single centre panel than any other NPW: 75% of
• A bigger nose than any other NPW: 35% more than the
common NPW9b profiles.
• A very clean sail shape for less drag, wind separation
• A profile with exceptional pull, speed and stability.
• A slightly cupped trailing edge by tensioning of the
• As easy to build as other NPW’s!
How does it perform?
Let me begin by summarizing the two main NPW9b profiles that I made
The Buzzard One profile was the first and I use it as a reference since it’s widely spread
(it’s the default profile in Jean-Pierre’s NPW9b calculator and the profile that Tom “KiteMan”
White currently uses in his downloadable building program). Its main
advantage is that it pulls very evenly, regardless of flying direction, and
is very smooth and controllable in its behaviour. The flying window is about
135° sideways and is largely a compromise between good behaviour and big
window. Pushing it another 5-10° is possible but results in the kite becoming
nervous, twitchy and generally unpleasant.
The Buzzard Vnose profile (which is available in J-P’s calculator download and can be imported
into the program) started with an idea of a different bridling at the nose.
The intention was to make the nose less distorted and more stable against collapsing,
but after some tuning it became evident that this small change in bridling
resulted in a kite that wanted an entirely different bridling to perform at
its best. I decided to do it from the beginning again (it does go faster the
second time, though J) and the result became a kite that is faster and has a slightly
bigger window than the Buzzard One; at least 140° sideways and an amazing
ability to park very close to zenith. Improved acceleration and the fact that
it is flatter across its width (less cupped) also gives it more “depower”;
its flying speed determines the pull to a higher degree than it does with the
more constantly pulling Buzzard One. The drawback is that the Vnose profile
overall pulls slightly less. A good idea is therefore to increase the planned
size about 10%.
The Teega is a different creature altogether. Its flying speed and window is
as good as the Vnose profile, but it responds quicker and more precisely to
the flyers input. The Teega has an incredibly strong pull which is more
evenly distributed across the flying window and holds up better through tight
turns. The sail also holds its inflated shape better in sudden gusts than the
flatter Buzzard Vnose.
The quick and precise response makes the Teega very well suited for big
sizes. In comparison, the Buzzard NPW9b’s feel slower in reaction, more
“floaty” and less powerful.
Now go ahead and make one! You will not regret it.
How do I fly it?
The Teega, along with all NPW’s, needs some tension on the brake lines to
keep it properly inflated. Eliminating this character in the design of the
kite is easy to do, but results in a kite that does not perform at its best.
Flying with some tension on the brakes is easy to learn.
How and when the collapse begins differs between various NPW models, however.
The Teega is easy to fly in this respect as it is very stable, has a soft way
of collapsing (by nose deformation rather than a violent collapse with total
loss of power) and never really does anything unexpected.
To turn, you either pull in the brake on one side, which causes a sharp turn.
Alternatively, pull on the entire side (power and brake line) for a more
gentle turn. Doing one at the left side and the other at the right side
causes it to fly sideways! Pulling in both brake lines makes it fly
backwards. Like all NPW’s, it is preferably flown with handles, but big ones
can also be controlled with a bar (brake lines connected to bar ends). All
four flying lines should be equally long.
The “depower” (not true depower because the angle of attack of an NPW can’t
be varied) of the Teega works as follows: Flying speed controls the amount of
pull. Slowing the kite down by pulling in both brake lines makes it pull
less. If you become seriously overpowered, pull hard on the brakes until the
kite collapses and flutters around with very little pull, rather than putting
yourself in danger. If that is not enough, let go of one handle to make it
pull even less.
When the wind is strong, launch and land at an angle instead of straight
downwind to reduce the risk of getting overpowered. When landing it can
easily be backed down with the trailing edge first (preferably to the side if
the wind is strong) or simply flown into the ground nose first. Nothing will
break. If it has landed on its nose, it can be restarted backwards by pulling
on the brakes until it backs up.
The Teega can be flown on two lines instead of four, but there is little to
gain from this except that it’s easier to learn how to fly a kite with two
lines. What you loose is the ability to control speed, do sharp turns,
reverse starts, safety collapses and much more. I have so far not provided
the brake line lengths for a two-line setup. These are, however, easily found
When packing away, the flying lines can simply be rolled up on the handles,
all the way up to the kite. When preparing to fly next time, simply lay the
kite on the ground and let the lines roll off the handles while you walk away
from the kite. With a little practice, this can be done with zero tangles and
twists in the lines and the time required for packing up and away is reduced
to a few minutes.
What size should I choose?
If you have little or no flying experience with NPW type of kites, the
default size of 3.7 square meters is a good choice for your first Teega. It
is big enough to fly in very light wind and perfectly manageable in moderate
winds. Smaller sizes are faster and bigger ones pull more, both of which can
be more demanding on the flyer. Remember that this kite is not suitable for
children! Always fly with care – a modest 3.7 sqm NPW can get you seriously
injured or even killed in stronger winds!
How to build your Teega
There are many ways to build NPW’s. My favourite assembly methods are
Jean-Pierre’s, as described on the building pages of his site (although I do simplify a few steps). Read them when my
explanations below are not enough! If you are interested in alternative
building methods, check out J-P’s
links page. The tips & tricks of Bill
Painter and Tom White are interesting; they use faster methods like hot
cutting and simplified sewing.
Below you will find my instructions on how to make a Teega, print them out
and follow carefully! You really need these instructions because several
details differ from the NPW9b.
It is recommended that you adjust the thread tension on your sewing machine
so that a seam through 4 layers of ripstop doesn’t wrinkle or curl up the
Getting the right dimensions
Download J-P’s latest NPW9b calculator
(this program runs in Windows only) and import the Teega profile. Change the value of A to the
size you want, choose between cascade and standard bridling (see ‘Bridle
your Teega’ for advice), copy (Ctrl-C) the
window, paste into another program (like Word) and print out this page. I
refer to this page as the ‘calculator printout’. All the measurements you
need are on this page, with the exception of bridle A1 and the extra line.
These two are calculated manually (see ‘T-lines and Extra line’ for details).
Please note, however, that the profile illustration shown in the program is
not entirely correct and neither is the AoA or Thickness values. The reason
it looks different on the screen is because the Teega uses non-standard sail
dimensions that the drawing part of the program misinterprets. Remember that
the numbers are all correct; the error is only visual with no consequence to
the builder! When designing the Teega, I used a special version of the
calculator - thanks, J-P!
The actual profile, with brakes let out to full speed forward, looks like
and sewing the panels
Although many people recommend hot cutting, a regular cut with a knife or a pair
of scissors works fine with high quality ripstop like Chikara.
It is not necessary to cut and sew the nose part of the centre panel, because
there is very little stress in this area with the bridling method used on the
Teega. The sail is therefore simply made of 3 rectangular pieces, all with
the same height: A+4 cm. The +4cm is for the 2 cm edge seam
allowances. In between panels, 1.5 cm seam allowance is needed.
The width of the centre panel is B+3 cm.
The width of the ‘2 mid-wings panel’ is C+6.25 cm.
The width of the ‘2 edge-wings panel’ is G+7.25 cm.
What is easy to get slightly wrong is the diagonal cutting of the wing
panels. This is how you should measure at each end to get the correct seam
Sew the 5 panels together using the ‘stitch with reinforcement cord’ as described by J-P. To make it easier to sew near the nose where two
seams meet, let the reinforcement line end at H cm before the nose corner in
all four seams (see illustration below).
Sew the perimeter of the leading edge and the
nose, using the ‘rolled seam with reinforcement cord’ technique as described by J-P. Personally I find just one zigzag
stitch is good enough here. In the next illustration, the thick black lines
show where you have sewn so far. Do not yet sew the trailing edge!
Now take a piece of bridle line (or any other
line with little stretch) that is a bit longer than the height A of your
kite. With the sail laid out perfectly flat on the floor, have a helper hold
one end of the line at the left corner of the nose. If you are working alone,
you can tie the line around the leg of a heavy chair and then put the corner
of the nose under it.
Take a pen and wind the line around it a few turns so that it is secured with
the tip of the pen at the outer wing corner. With the pen, draw a curve from
the wing corner to the centre panel and cut this piece off with a pair of
scissors. There should be nothing removed from the centre panel or the wing
corner, only in between these two points! (If these points are not on equal
distance, you will have to remove some fabric from the panel which is longer,
so that A=E=F). Do the same thing with the right side of the kite.
The following illustration shows you where to draw and cut:
One way of making sure the kite is perfectly symmetrical is to fold it double
and copy the left, already cut, wing to the right side.
Tensioning the trailing edge
In this step you will sew the entire trailing edge,
double folded, with a straight stitch and a reinforcement cord lying freely
inside it. Make sure that the height of the kite becomes exactly A cm when
you are done. Also remember to roll the seam to the same side as you did
before, so that all folds end up on the same side.
Starting from the left, sew the trailing edge from the left corner to the
centre panel. The reinforcement cord should stick out at both ends but must
be secured by a few stitches in the middle (where mid-wing and edge panels
meet). The X in the next illustration indicates where the line is secured:
Cut the cord and continue with the centre panel:
Secure the end of a new cord (where X is in the illustration below), sew the
trailing edge of the centre panel and let the cord stick out where the centre
Begin with a new cord and sew all the way to the right corner, with the cord
sticking out at both ends. Secure the cord at the middle (X in the next
illustration) as you did on the left side. The entire trailing edge is now
Each of the five panels can now be tensioned by pulling on the free cord
ends. This is done by laying the sail out perfectly flat, securing the sail
at the point where the cord you are about to pull is fixed (at the X) and
very gently pull on the loose end. Just before the sail starts to wrinkle or
bend, put a mark where the cord exits from the seam. This mark represents zero
tension in that panel. Then pull out the right length (as specified
below) and secure the cord with a few stitches or put a knot on the end so it
can’t slip back in.
The shortening to make for Teega version 1.2 is: 0.04*B cm on the centre panel
and 0.015*A cm on each of the other four panels.
Measure the centre panel width B at the nose of your finished sail, from
reinforcement line-in-seam to reinforcement line-in-seam. If B differs from
what the calculator printout says, recalculate L=B/6 before drawing the darts
in the next step.
Carefully draw the 5 nose darts, equally spaced with L cm between each tip,
on the front of the sail. The front is the side that has the edge folds on it
and will be facing the flyer when in the air. Note that the Teega uses no
side darts! Their width is specified as 0.01 cm, because the calculator does
not accept zero.
When drawing the nose darts, please make sure that each dart has the exact
width K at the very edge of the sail. This is important for the final shape
of the nose and the flying performance. When the darts have later been sewn,
the nose ”edge” should be exactly 5*K shorter than the ”base” of the nose.
Also draw a line where the nose reinforcement line will be sewn. It runs in a
straight line between the tips of the darts (at H cm from the nose edge) and
then makes a gently rounded curve at each side, from the last dart tip to a
point M cm from the nose corner. See the following diagram (and also the
photo below on the page):
Sew the nose reinforcement line with a straight stitch on the front of the
sail, right on the line you just drew. A flat piece of Dacron is easiest to
sew, but I usually manage with an 80 kg round Dacron line as well (same as I
use in the seams).
Fold each nose dart in the middle, along its central line, and sew with a
straight stitch as shown in the next illustration. Make sure you fold them so
that the front of the sail is facing out! Note that by not following
the triangle line exactly, but instead making the dart slightly bigger in the
base and slightly thinner and more ”pointy” towards its tip, there is less
distortion of the sail when it’s shaped to a 180° round nose. The drawn
straight line should be crossed in the middle. It’s a good idea to draw the
S-shaped line before sewing to make things easier.
When all 5 nose darts are sewn, fold them against the sail and secure them at
their corners only with a few stitches or a drop of superglue (cyano
The following picture shows the underside of the
first prototype Teega with darts and reinforcement line sewn. The T-lines (2
showing) and the Extra line have been tied (as described in the next step).
You can also see bridles A1 (tied to the Extra line), A2 (tied to the sail
between orange centre and red mid-wing panel) and B1 (at the right bottom
and Extra line
The Teega profile requires the use of a ”Vnose arrangement” at each end of
This is done by
1. Shortening both bridles A1 by T*1.5. Please do this
right away so you don’t forget it: Calculate A1-T*1.5, cross out the value in
box A1 on your calculator printout and write the new value beside it.
2. Adding two Extra lines, one in each corner of the nose,
with the length T*3.3.
Tie the Extra line with one end in the nose corner and the other at M cm
towards point B1, right where the sewn reinforcement line ends. Fold it in half
and stretch out to measure that it has the right length. Bridle A1 will later
be tied around the Extra line with a bridle knot. This knot should be able to
slide on the Extra line so that A1 can find its optimal position by
itself. Do not worry if the knot later becomes very tight - the sliding is
only needed for the first flight.
Tie the 5 T-lines, one at each nose dart, with one end around the
reinforcement line and the other end around the edge of the nose, at the fold
of the dart. All T-lines should have the length T, carefully measured from
the sail beneath the reinforcement line to the nose edge. Note that on the
Teega there are no T-lines in the nose corners, only one at each dart.
T-lines, Extra line and A1 are all tied with the bridle knot shown
Mark out all bridle attachment points, using the A-A, B-B and C-C spacing
values from your calculator printout. Always measure each point all the way
from the trailing edge of the kite, to avoid small errors accumulating.
Please note that the top bridle points end up at different distances from the
nose (A2 is close, B1 a bit further down and C1 is far away) – this is how it
Choose one of two bridling methods:
Standard bridling (non-cascaded) is a bit faster to make and easier to
get right. It is the preferred method on really small kites (less than 2.5
square meters), as the measuring errors of a cascade bridling can accumulate
and degrade the performance.
Cascade bridling requires more tying of knots and attention to bridle
lengths, but it uses less line and will therefore have less drag. The shorter
bridles are also easier to measure manually. Make sure your primaries are
correct and you won’t ever have to check them in the future. Secondaries can
always be adjusted at the sail.
Note that when you bunch and tie the lines together at the Q-point, they get
at least 1 cm shorter (depending on the thickness of your lines) – this cm
goes into the knot.
Since the Teega uses 3 brake lines (A11, A12 and C5), you have to let one of
the primary brake lines run all the way to point C5 while the other goes to
the secondary pair A11-A12 when doing cascaded bridling. See diagram
With standard bridling, you can run A11-A12 as a pair to the Q-point
and C5 as a separate line that goes through the Q-point knot, ending with a
stop knot. Always secure the Q-point knots with a few drops of superglue.
I do the cascaded bridling (the bridling method I prefer) in this
order – it may not be the fastest way, but it works well:
1. I cut and tie all the secondaries to the sail, one pair at a time, using the
bridle knot shown under ‘Knots’. Each secondary has been marked at the
midpoint (where the primary will be attached) and at its correct length.
About 5 cm extra is needed at each end for tying it to the sail.
2. I cut all primaries (double folded) and bunch them together at the middle
in four groups; 2 power and 2 brakes. They are marked at their midpoint and
at the right length +1 cm (that cm is for the loss in the Q-point knot). All
primaries are the same length (except the one that goes all the way to C5),
so this step goes much faster. Only about 2 cm extra is needed at each end
for tying it to the secondaries
3. I cut four 20 cm pieces of thick Dacron (at least 80 kg) – these will
become the Q-lines.
4. I tie each bunch of primaries at the midpoint with the Dacron line, which
gets folded in two. See knot 2A under ‘Knots’.
5. I make a stop knot on the end of the double folded Dacron and melt the
loose ends to a ball shape with a lighter so the knot can’t slip. The Q-lines
are now finished!
6. I hang all four Q-lines from a hook in the ceiling.
7. I make a simple stop knot at each primary bridle (except brake C5), at 0.5
cm after the marked primary length distance from the Q-point (about that much
disappears into the primary-secondary knot). The stop knot is needed to keep
the primary-secondary knot from slipping when under load.
8. I place the kite with its secondary bridles on the floor and tie each
primary end to the midpoint of a secondary pair, making sure the primaries
are running straight all the way from the Q-point knot without being tangled.
See knot 2B under ‘Knots’. Last of all, I tie brake C5 to the sail – note
that its length from Q-point to the sail is the sum of primary length and
the value in box C5 (if you click on ‘standard bridling’ in J-P’s
calculator, the right length will appear in box C5)!
9. Now that everything is in place, I fine-tune the length of the primaries
by pulling on the shortest ones until all primaries become equally long. Then
I pull hard on all primaries at the same time to make the Q-point knot tight.
10. I put a few drops of glue on each of the four Q-point knots. This is to
prevent the primaries from slipping when under load. A drawback with this is
that they can’t be replaced one by one, but so far none of my primaries have
11. Done! After a few hours of flying, the secondaries can be measured and
re-tuned if necessary. The primaries will not need any adjustment.
1. I use the bridle knot shown below for attaching all bridles to the sail
(with a needle through all layers of fabric on one side of the reinforcement
line and back again on the other side of the reinforcement line). It is also
used for tying the T-lines, the Extra line and for attaching A1 to the Extra
line. A ”hot tool” for burning small holes in the sail (as described by J-P)
is nice but not necessary in my experience.
Remember to tighten this knot by pulling on the right end. If you incorrectly
tighten it by pulling on the loose end, the knot will look different and
might “twist back” under load, resulting in the bridle getting longer than
what you adjusted it to. To adjust the length of a bridle, pull on the loose
end and the knot will slide up. It can then be opened up with your nails and
adjusted without completely untying it.
2A. This knot is for attaching bridles to the Q-lines. The black line
is the bunch of bridles and the blue is the Q-line, complete with a knot at
the end (this is where your flying lines will attach with a larks head knot).
Start by gathering all the bridle lines and then make a twist in them. Then
tie the Q-line around them as shown. Tighten well and secure the knot with a
drop of glue after you have made sure that all bridles have the correct
2B. The very same knot is what I use when tying primaries to
secondaries on a cascaded bridle. In this case, the black line is the
secondary bridle pair and the blue line is the primary. On the end of the
primary, you need to put a stop knot or it will slip! I prefer not to glue
this knot so that the secondary pair can easily be replaced if necessary. I
have broken secondaries, but only by crashing into trees and getting the
lines cut by sharp rocks.
The Teega has been tested mainly on fabric of Chikara nylon ripstop. This is
a high quality material with a little stretch, but not the cheapest to be
found. Experiments have shown that stretchier, stiffer or more porous fabrics
perform worse and often require a re-tuning of various bridle lengths.
There are many other ripstops to be found, most of them of lower quality than
Chikara. One that I have not been satisfied with is nylon Shikarex. It is
cheaper but similar to Chikara except for its much stiffer coating. This
stiffness results in flutter and more distortion of the nose.
The Teega prototypes have all used bridles of Dyneema/Spectra; 25-50 kg for
primaries and 15-30 kg for secondaries (the higher numbers are for bigger
kites). These are thin low-stretch lines and the best to be found. Dacron is
cheaper but stretches more – it will most probably work, but I can’t
guarantee that the performance will be as good using this material. Dacron
is, however, far easier to untie and is therefore a good choice for secondary
bridles (using cascade bridling) if you want to make repeated experiments
with different bridle lengths.
Dacron works great here. I have used 65 and 80 kg strength and have never
seen a reinforcement line damaged or broken.
Always use synthetic thread. I use ‘extra strong polyester’ which has never
failed but is probably overkill and the sewing machine needs to be carefully
adjusted to be able to pull it through.
Use only Dyneema/Spectra flying lines. 30m is a very nice length for most
kites. Really big ones in smooth wind can benefit from longer and really
small ones in gusty conditions can benefit from shorter.
There are many recommendations about flying line strength on the net. Mine
(as well as Peter Lynn’s) is to relate to your body weight, regardless of
kite size. For main lines, use 2 times your body weight. For brake lines, use
your body weight. For really heavy use one can increase this to 3 times body
weight for main lines and 1.5 times for brake lines.
Do’s and don’ts
Do stick to Chikara nylon ripstop and bridles of dyneema/spectra if you want
your Teega to perform at its best.
Do try to be exact when measuring the following: The 5 darts and their
T-lines, the Extra line, bridles A1, B1-B6 and the brake lines. These are
most critical to the performance of the Teega.
Do sew the perimeter (edge) of the sail before making the darts. This will
make your dart measurements more exact and allow you to re-sew them if they
Do remember that a regular knot is a lot easier to untie and adjust than a
nicer looking loop-through-centre-of-the-core attachment. The short loose
ends aren’t really visible when flying.
Do experiment with the Teega profile if you feel like it, but keep in mind
that its default values are thoroughly tested and should perform well without
Do contact me if you’re having problems: email@example.com
I’d also very much appreciate a short email or a picture when you’ve
successfully built one!
Don’t use ‘Q-point extensions’ as they will alter the shape of the kite.
Don’t hot cut and discard the darts as it becomes impossible to alter their
Don’t try to manually calculate the bridle attachment points by dividing the
height of the sail with the number of bridles in that row. Always use the
spacing values from J-P’s calculator and mark out the points by measuring
each point all the way from the trailing edge.
Centre panel width
Experiment with the NPW9b in 2003 showed that a wider centre panel (B=A*2/3)
had more wing properties and less parachute properties than a narrow centre
panel (B=A/2). The result was a kite that was more fun to fly and performed
better in terms of power control. The Teega takes this one step further by
increasing the centre panel width to B=A*3/4.
Some people still prefer a narrow centre panel for aesthetic reasons. In case
you feel that way or wish to experiment with even wider centre panels, there
is no reason why you shouldn’t build your Teega with the centre panel width
of your choice. Fact is that this change can be made with little or no
adjustment to the profile. My guess is that the Teega will perform reasonably
well with centre panel widths between B=A/2 and B=A.
What is important to know is that the only sail measurement that needs
adjustment is L. Calculate it as L=(centre panel width)/6. The number of
darts, their width K and all other values remain unchanged!
If you do choose to build a Teega with an altered centre panel width, I would
be happy if you let me know, regardless of whether you need help adjusting it
or it flies perfectly.
Contact me at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Trailing edge tensioning
The tensioning of the trailing edge, created by the shortening of the
reinforcement line, contributes to the high quality power and stability of
the Teega. The amount of shortening is a good compromise determined by flying
in different conditions. Altering this value affects the performance, so if
you wish you can make it adjustable. Tightening it further increases the
power, but makes the kite slower and more prone to stalling, which can limit
its performance in light winds. Decreasing the tension makes the Teega
slightly faster at the expense of stability and power.
If you decide to decrease the tension, start by reducing the shortening of
the reinforcement line to 50% of the default values to get an idea of what it
does. The Teega will fly with no trailing edge tensioning, but will be
twitchy and prone to nose collapse in gusty winds because of its low angle of
Adding different amounts of tension to the edge, mid-wing and centre panels
is of course possible for those wishing to experiment further. It is,
however, complicated to evaluate as you will have to keep records on which
setting did what in various wind conditions.
Gleyzes – for his willingness to always add yet another useful feature
to his excellent NPW9b design tool: The Nasa Para Wing 9b calculator.
Also many thanks for his great NPW pages and, of course, for hosting
these pages about the Teega!
“NPWBill” Painter, alias NPWBill – for designing the NPW9b by using
Francis Rogallo’s 9th model in the Nasa Para Wing series. This was
before the similarly looking commercial NPW9 was released and the ‘b’ in
the name was later added by Bill to avoid confusion.
“KiteMan” White – for spreading the NPW9b kite to enthusiast around the
globe with his excellent step-by-step building program and for his
clever tips on how to build NPW’s.
Kearey – for putting me on the right track when designing wing profiles
with his explanations of laminar separation bubbles and what causes
them. Also for his in-flight videos of the NPW9b Buzzard Vnose that made
it possible to study the differences between theoretical profiles and
how they actually look in flight.
Cramer – for putting me straight on the not-straight sewing method of
the nose darts.
Claes – for his endless experiments with new NPW ideas; triple centre
panel, high aspect, different bridling, progressive brakes, you name it!
Green – for his early experiments with the length of the NPW9b T-lines,
that inspired me to make the nose increasingly fatter.
Culp – for bringing the benefits of tension along the trailing edge to
Rogallo, the father of the Nasa Para Wing parachutes, whose work
pioneered the making of flexible flying wings.
and to everyone else at the discussion group email@example.com!
New versions info
in version 1.1
version 1.0 to 1.1 there is only one bridle change: B2. It was made slightly
longer because it created a more even tension along the leading edge and nose
and it also improved performance slightly. In addition to this, various parts
of the instructions were changed to make certain details easier to
understand. Thanks to the builders who asked questions and made me aware of
in version 1.2
version 1.1 to 1.2 two bridles have been changed; A2 and A11.
nose and the leading edge (B) bridles have been carefully adjusted, the next
most sensitive bridle is A2. Since it determines the thickness of the profile
directly behind the nose, it also sets the flying characteristics. With A2
too long, the Teega looses a bit of top speed but gets very gentle and stable
in handling. With A2 too short, the top speed and acceleration increases
slightly and the kite gets more nervous. I have tried different lengths in
various conditions and think it should be shortened very slightly from the
previous length. A high wind session finally convinced me of this - the
original A2 made the Teega a bit hesitant to go fast against the wind. With
this very small change, stability is not reduced.
A11 has been made longer after studying the optimal brake length setting at
full speed forward. The brakes are normally pulled in a bit more than I have
previously thought and the new A11 makes the sail more smooth and improves
new A profiles have been tried in an attempt to gain more speed and increase
the flying window. None have been totally convincing so far.
to these bridle changes, various parts of the building instructions have been
improved. I encourage all builders to re-read
pages 15 and 16, where some useful tips and information has been added.